Decomposition
Every structure should divide the information that they store across processors, in order to do this two main approach are considered inside OpenFPM.

Model decomposition:
 Domain decomposition
 Generate graph model
 Find optimal decomposition
 Post process the decomposition

Fixed decomposition
 Domain decomposition

Data driven decomposition
 Divide the total information in equal chunks
The Model decomposition approach try to model the computation and comunication across processor given a certain decomposition and try to find the decomposition that minimize the communication balancing the computation.
The Fixed decomposition just divide the domain as the user specified and assign 1 subdomain to each processor
The data driven decomposition instead consider the volume of the information the structure store and divide the volume equally them equally regardless of the communication.
Model decomposition
In a distributedmemory setting, where data are scattered across processors, two factors are important: equal division of work across processors and reduction of the communication overhead. A typical approach, is to formulate the problem as a graphpartitioning problem: the physical domain is divided into subsubdomains (Domain decomposition) (vertices of the graph), each of them carrying a weight modelling the computational cost. The communication pattern between subdomains is represented as links between the subsubdomains (edges of the graph) with weights formalizing the communication cost (Generate graph model). The requirement of balanced computation with minimal communication then translates to an optimization problem of finding a graph partitioning where each group contains the same sum of weights, and the sum of the cut edges is minimal (Find optimal decomposition). As final step the decomposition can be postprocess further more to be more optimal and based on factors not considered by the optimization process, like merging vertex (subsubdomain) to create bigger subdomains. Even if a model decomposition it is not bind to a graph model it is true that until now seem to be the best approach in scientific computation
 CartDecomposition (doc)(API reference)
Fixed decomposition
The decomposition is chosen by the user and kept fixed.
Data Driven decomposition
Data is divided across processors, It is the default decomposition when a decomposition is not available yet, it basically divide the data consistently across processors regardless of geometrical meaning or communication
Ghost
Every subdomain has an extended part called ghost
With the dashed red box we indicate the local domain while with the othe color boxes we indicate the external Ghost boxes that cover this extended part, these boxes are indicated by G5_0 G8_0 G9_0 and G9_1. These boxes can be calculated as the intersection of the extended domain with the adjacent subdomains. Note also that each external ghost box of a subdomain is an internal ghost box on another processor subdomain
The following image show the internal ghost boxes of the same local processor indicated with B5_0 B8_0 B9_0 and B9_1. The production of these ghost boxes can be produced as the intersection of the local subdomain with the expanded adjacent processor subdomains.
Each distributed structure in general define a function to synchronize the ghost part